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The later Hittites spoke an Indo-European language called Nesili , but their predecessors the Hattians had spoken a little-known language Hattili , of uncertain affinities. The Horites , formerly of Mount Seir , were implied to be Canaanite Hivite , although unusually there is no direct confirmation of this in the narrative. The Hurrians , based in Upper Mesopotamia , spoke the Hurrian language. Their language was a language isolate. Canaan and the Canaanites are mentioned some times in the Hebrew Bible , mostly in the Pentateuch and the books of Joshua and Judges.
An ancestor called Canaan first appears as one of Noah 's grandsons.
He appears during the narrative known as the Curse of Ham , in which Canaan is cursed with perpetual slavery because his father Ham had "looked upon" the drunk and naked Noah. The expression "look upon" at times has sexual overtones in the Bible, as in Leviticus , "The man who lies with his father's wife has uncovered his father's nakedness God later promises the land of Canaan to Abraham , and eventually delivers it to descendants of Abraham , the Israelites.
The Hebrew Bible lists borders for the land of Canaan. The Book of Numbers , , includes the phrase "the land of Canaan as defined by its borders. The term "Canaanites" in biblical Hebrew is applied especially to the inhabitants of the lower regions, along the sea coast and on the shores of the Jordan River, as opposed to the inhabitants of the mountainous regions. By the Second Temple period BC—70 AD ,  "Canaanite" in the Hebrew language had come to be not an ethnic designation, so much as a general synonym for " merchant ", as it is interpreted in, for example, Book of Job , or Book of Proverbs John N.
Oswalt notes that "Canaan consists of the land west of the Jordan and is distinguished from the area east of the Jordan. These books of the Old Testament canon give the narrative of the Israelites after the death of Moses and their entry into Canaan under the leadership of Joshua.
The city of Jerusalem fell after a siege which lasted either eighteen or thirty months. Genesis —19 states:. Later the Canaanite clans scattered, and the borders of Canaan reached [across the Mediterranean coast] from Sidon toward Gerar as far as Gaza , and then [inland around the Jordan Valley ] toward Sodom, Gomorrah , Admah and Zeboiim , as far as Lasha.
The Sidon whom the Table identifies as the firstborn son of Canaan has the same name as that of the coastal city of Sidon in Lebanon. This city dominated the Phoenician coast, and may have enjoyed hegemony over a number of ethnic groups, who are said to belong to the "Land of Canaan". Specifically, the other nations include the Hittites , the Girgashites, the Amorites, the Perizzites , the Hivites , and the Jebusites Deuteronomy According to the Book of Jubilees , the Israelite conquest of Canaan is attributed to Canaan's steadfast refusal to join his elder brothers in Ham's allotment beyond the Nile , and instead " squatting " on the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea , within the inheritance delineated for Shem.
Canaan thus incurs a further curse from Noah for disobeying the agreed apportionment of land. One of the commandments precisely n. Smith have theorized—based on their archaeological and linguistic interpretations—that the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah represented a subset of Canaanite culture. The name "Canaanites" is attested, many centuries later, as the endonym of the people later known to the Ancient Greeks from c. This mirrors usage of the names Canaanites and Phoenicians in later books of the Hebrew Bible such as at the end of the Book of Zechariah , where it is thought [ by whom?
During the Atlantic slave trade , many Christians began teaching that black Africans were descendants of Canaan and used the Curse of Ham to justify enslaving black Africans.
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Joseph Smith and Brigham Young both believed that the Curse of Ham meant only God could decree the beginning or end of black slavery, and that for white people to go to war over it was both dangerous and pointless. Over the succeeding century, many used this theory as the rationale for denying Africans access to priesthood and temple ordinances, though it was not official doctrine.
In June , President Spencer W. Kimball announced that all worthy male members could hold the priesthood going forward. Modern scholars do not believe that black Africans are related to the Canaanites based upon race as depicted throughout local and Egyptian arts, genetics, and physical anthropology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East.
For the s Israeli movement, see Canaanism. For the film, see Land of Canaan film.
For other uses, see Canaan disambiguation. Phoenician Hebrew Ammonite Moabite Edomite. See also: Prehistory of the Levant. Further information: Syria Phoenicia and Palestine. Main article: Prehistory of the Southern Levant. Main articles: Phoenicia and History of ancient Israel and Judah. Kingdom of Judah.
Kingdom of Israel. Philistine city-states. Phoenician states. Kingdom of Ammon. Kingdom of Edom. Kingdom of Aram-Damascus. Aramean tribes.
colonnine.eu/96-chloroquine-diphosphate-vs.php Arubu tribes. Nabatu tribes. Assyrian Empire. Kingdom of Moab. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. February Further information: Kings of Ugarit. Further information: Curse of Ham and Book of Abraham. Wayne State University. Retrieved 9 October Eerdmans Publishing.
Canaanite is by far the most common ethnic term in the Hebrew Bible. The pattern of polemics suggests that most Israelites knew that they had a shared common remote ancestry and once common culture. Yale University Press. In the ideology of the book of Joshua, the Canaanites are included in the list of nations requiring extermination ; ; For the area south of Mt. Carmel, however, after the Bronze Age ended references to 'Canaan' as a present phenomenon dwindle almost to nothing the Hebrew Bible of course makes frequent mention of 'Canaan' and 'Canaanites', but regularly as a land that had become something else, and as a people who had been annihilated.
British Museum People of the Past. Despite the long regnant model that the Canaanites and Israelites were people of fundamentally different culture, archaeological data now casts doubt on this view. The material culture of the region exhibits numerous common points between Israelites and Canaanites in the Iron I period c. The record would suggest that the Israelite culture largely overlapped with and derived from Canaanite culture Given the information available, one cannot maintain a radical cultural separation between Canaanites and Israelites for the Iron I period.
In Greenspahn, Frederick E. NYU Press. A Commentary on Herodotus, Books 1—4. Oxford University Press. That etymology is perhaps correct after all. Pastoralism in the Levant. Cambridge University Press. In Miller, Patrick D.
Fortress Press. The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Writing Systems. Oxford: Blackwell.
AN EULOGIUM ON PRESIDENT MONTESQUIEU, BY MONSIEUR D’ALEMBERT.
The History of Ancient Palestine. Syria in French. Institut Francais du Proche-Orient. The wording of this passage creates some problems as to the identity of these 'Canaanites', because of the parallelism between LUKh-na-ah-num and LUhabbatum, which is unexpected. The Akkadian word habbatum, the meaning of which is actually 'brigands', is sometimes used to translate the Sumerian expression SA. GAZ, which is normally thought to be a logogram for habiru, 'Hebrews'.
Thus there is some reason to question the identity of the 'Canaanites' who appear in this text from Marl We may ask whether these people were called 'Canaanites' because they were ethnically of another stock than the ordinary population of Mari, or whether it was because they came from a specific geographical area, the land of Canaan. However, because of the parallelism in this text between LUhabbatum and LUKi-na-ah-num, we cannot exclude the possibility that the expression 'Canaanites' was used here with a sociological meaning.
It could be that the word 'Canaanites' was in this case understood as a sociological designation of some sort which shared at least some connotations with the sociological term habiru. Should this be the case, the Canaanites of Marl may well have been refugees or outlaws rather than ordinary foreigners from a certain country from Canaan.
The expedition faltered long before reaching the city owing to the difficult and inhospitable terrain of the desert and, according to some claims, may never have been mounted at all. Still, the persistence of the story of Cambyses' expedition suggests the great fame of Meroe as a wealthy metropolis. The city was also known as the Island of Meroe as the waters flowing around it made it appear so. It is referenced in the biblical Book of Genesis as Aethiopia, a name applied to the region south of Egypt in antiquity meaning "place of the burnt-faces".
Although there is evidence of over-grazing and over-use of the land, which caused considerable problems, Meroe thrived until it was sacked by an Aksumite king in c. While there was a settlement at Meroe as early as BCE the oldest tomb discovered there, that of 'Lord A', dates from that year , the city flourished at its height between c.
The Kingdom of Kush, founded with its capital at Napata, was ruled by Kushites called "Nubians" by the Egyptians who, early on, continued Egyptian practices and customs and, though they were depicted in art as distinctly Kushite, called themselves by Egyptian titles. Meroitic culture shows much Egyptian influence, always mixed with local ideas. Many temples housed cults to Egyptian gods like Amun called Amani and Isis , but indigenous deities received royal patronage as well.